This is a nice list of uttered sounds that communicate a wide array of emotion, with definitions:
100 Mostly Small but Meaningful Interjections (Daily Writing Tips)
A similar list but not identical, no definitions:
Interjections (English Grammar Revolution)
There are other sites out there with more exhaustive lists, but they include vulgar and profane phrases alongside the clean ones so I haven’t listed them here.
See the (short but growing) complete list of researched topics here.